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淡水龍蝦的人工育苗及其養殖技術

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淡水龍蝦的人工育苗及其養殖技術

發布日期:2018-12-25 作者: 點擊:

      小龍蝦幼苗

     

??YI、XIAMIAOPEIYU


??小龍蝦苗江苏快3在孵化后11天內個體發生變態,成活率為50%,底棲生活后群體飼養的成活率為70%,用貽貝投喂到3齡,成品蝦4齡開始產卵,5齡雌蝦有60%個體抱卵。


??LONGXIAJIAOWEIXINGWEIYIBANSHIZAIGANGTUIKEDECIXIAYUWEITUIKEDEXIONGXIAZHIJIANJINXING。JIEJINTUIKEQIDEGETITOUXIONGJIAXIAYUANTISEBIANAN,QIANYANXIONGJIEHEFUJIEDEBEICEJIEHECHUDEJIEJIANMOCHENGPENGRUNZHUANGTAI,GENJUZHEXIEWAIBIAOTEZHENG,KEYIPANDUANLONGXIAJIJIANGFASHENGTUIKE,TUIKEKAISHISHI,TOUXIONGBUJIAKEYUWEIBUJIAOJIECHULIEHEN,TOUXIONGBUXIANCONGZHONGTUOCHU,GENZHUWEIBUYITIAO,JIUKETUOLUO,CONGTUIKEKAISHIDAOJIESHUDAYUE27FENZHONG,RUOTUIKESHOUGANRAOSHI,KEZANSHIZHONGZHI,GUOHOUZAIJIXU,QIESHUNLIWANCHENGTUIKEGUOCHENG,BUFENHUOQUANBUFUZHIJIWEISHANDUANDIAODELONGXIAKETONGGUOTUIKEQUANBUHUIFUBINGQIEGETITONGYANGZENGCHANG。


??GANGTUIKEDECIXIA,SHENTICHUYUTANRUANZHUANGTAI,KAISHIZENGJIATIZHONGYUEXUSHUXIAOSHI,CISHIFANGRUXIONGXIAJIUKEFASHENGJIAOWEIXINGWEI,JIAOWEISHIJIANWEI15—60FENZHONG,CIXIATUIKEHOU,JIAKEZHUJIANYINGHUA,JIAKEYINGHUASHIJIAOWEIFASHENGKUNNAN。


??1.龍蝦幼苗江苏快3的孵化:龍蝦幼苗的孵化一般在5、6月開始,卵粒受精后由棕黑色變棕色,至孵化前卵粒又變成透明紅色,不透明者為死卵。一個個體的孵化需10—20天,但是孵化高峰期只有數日,孵化的時間是從太陽剛落山開始到半夜為止。剛孵化的幼體浮游于表層,隨著水流集中于排水口的網槽中,第2天早晨用網捕獲浮游表層的幼體。

江苏快3??CILONGXIAZAIJIAOWEIHOU20XIAOSHINEIPAILUAN,CHANLUANYICIYUEXU30FENZHONG,PAICHULUANLIJINFUZAILUANGANGMAOSHANG,RANHOUJING3ZHOUHOUFUCHU,WEISHOUJINGLUAN3TIANNEI,CONGCILONGXIAFUNEIZIXINGTUOLUO。TONGCHANGCHANLUANSHUIWENZAI28℃ZUOYOUWEIJIA。WENDUGAO,LUANYIBIANZHI,WENDUDISHI,FUHUASHIJIANCHANG,BIANXINGLUANYEDUO,YINCISHUIWENKONGZHIHENZHONGYAO。

江苏快3??JUGUANCHA,TOUXIONGJIACHANG72mmHE157mmDEQINXIAGETIDEBAOLUANSHUFENBIEWEI5240LIHE48850LI,RUGUOBAOLUANSHIPEIYUTIAOJIANBUSHIYI,SILUANHUIZENGJIAHUOFASHENGLUANTITUOLUO,SHOUYUNDELONGXIASHOUDAOJINGXIASHILUANTIYITUOLUO,FUHUASHULIANGXIANZHUJIANSHAO,TIZHONGYUE1.5GONGJINDEBAOLUANGETI,ZAIRIBENSIYANG2GEYUE,JIEGUOFUHUAYOUTIWEISHUWEI1678—1137WEIPINGJUNYINGWEI7005WEI。


??2.FUYOUQIYOUTI:CHUFUHUADELONGXIAMIAOSHIHONGSEYOUCHONG,RANHOUBIANCHENGSHUISETOUMING,BIANPINGXIEZHUANGTI,ZAIHAISHUIZHONGZHIJIANYIDUIHEISEYANJING,RUBUZHUYIKANSHI,WUFAKANCHUSHISHENMESHENGWU,CHUYANJINGZHIWAIHUANYOUXUDUOTUCHUGANGMAO,GUGESHIRUANDE,MEIYOUSHIHUIZHI,XUJINGTUIBIAN3CIYUE6GEYUECAINENGBIANCHENGXINGSICHENGTIDEXIAMIAO。

??FUHUADEDIⅠQIYOUTI,ZAISHUIWENYUEWEI20℃DESHUIZHONGSIYANG,BINGCHONGFENTOUWEILUCHONGERLIAO,ZAI2TIANNEIFAYUDAODIⅡQIYOUTI,CIHOU3TIANHOUFAYUDAODIⅢQIYOUTI,ZAIJING4—5TIANFAYUDAODIⅣQIYOUTI,ZHIDAOBIANTAI,YEJIUSHISHUO,FUHUAHOUBIANTAIQIANDEFUYOUSHENGHUOQIZUIDUANWEI9—10TIAN。

??LUANJING20TIANHOUFUCHUYOUMIAO,FUCHUHOUYITIANYANSEBIANDAN,22TIANTISETOUMINGCHENGSHUISE,DAISHAOXUSESU,CHUJIAOBIANCHANG,TUIKE,TONGSHIDIYIDUIWEISHANZHIWAICEJUNCHANGMANGANGMAO。CONGCIKAISHISHESHI,SHOUXIANSHILUNCHONG,SHIWUGUOBAOHUOMEIYOUSHESHIDOUHUISIWANG。CHUSHIWUZHIWAI,HUANYAOTIANJIAWEISHENGSU,YOUTICAINENGCHANGQISHENGCUN。

??

??3.浮游期幼體和水流:一般情況下,暴氣是飼養甲殼類幼體的一項極為有效的措施,但暴氣不能太強,如果采用強暴氣措施,幼體頭胸甲與鰓之間出現氣泡,導致幼體浮頭死亡。隨著小龍蝦苗種江苏快3發育的進展,幼體下沉水池后,只要不產生從底部向上強烈的水流,龍蝦一般難于再浮游到海水表面。暴氣如果太強,幼體體表和鰓容易被水池底部的有機物覆蓋,影響幼體活動和呼吸,引起體質衰弱。


江苏快3??4.FUYOUQIYOUTIDEERLIAO:LONGXIAYOUTIBUSHIDONGWUXINGDEFUYOUSHENGWU,LUCHONGWUJIEYOUCHONGSHIDIⅠQIYOUTIDESHIYIERLIAO。DIⅡQIYIHOUERLIAOXUYAOLIANGGENGDA,KEJIANGHAISHUIPEIYANGDEXIAOQIUZAOHUOZHEHAIYANGJIAOMUTOUWEILUCHONGWUJIEYOUCHONG,SIYANG10—14TIANYIHOUZUOWEILONGXIAYOUTIERLIAO。SUIRANYUHEBEILEIDEROUPIANDENGFEIHUOXINGERLIAOYEKESHIYONG,DANYOUYUWUFUYOUXING,QIERLIAOJIAZHIJIAOCHA,TOUWEIGEZHONGSILIAODEJIEGUORUBIAO1SUOSHI,TOUWEIHUOLUCHONGHELENGDONGLUCHONGSILIAODECHENGHUOLVYOUHENDACHAYI,YAOSHICHENGHUOLVDADAO50%,ZHINENGYIHUOLUCHONGWEIERLIAO。

??YIBANRENWEIXIAMIAOBUZHIJIEXUYAOZHIWUXINGFUYOUSHENGWU,DANSHIZAIFANZHIDANXIBAOLVZAOLEIDESHUICHIZHONG,LONGXIAMIAOCHENGHUOLVYOUTIGAOQINGXIANG,KENENGSHILVZAOLEIDEFANZHIDUIWENDINGSHUIZHIDAILAIJIAOHAODEYINGXIANG,YINCIBUNENGHUSHIDANXIBAOZAOLEIDEXIAOGUO,ZAISHIWAIDETIAOJIANXIA,GUIZAOLEIJIFUYOUDONGWUDEFANZHISHIYOUTICHENGHUOLVBUZHIYUXIAJIANGDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。


??5.BIANTAIHOUDEYOUTI:DIⅣQIYOUTIDEXINGTAIWEICHENGTIXING,ZAISHENGTAISHANGCHUYUCONGFUYOUSHENGHUOXIANGDIQISHENGHUODEGUODUQI。LONGXIAYOUTIBIANTAIHOUDAYUE2TIAN,KAISHIZAIDIZHIPUFANGDESHAZIHESHILILINJIECHUWAJUECHAOXUE,MEIGEXIAOSHIZIXIAQIANFUSHUWEIGETI。DIⅣQIDESHIJIANDAYUEWEI12TIAN,FAYUDAODIⅤQI,YOUTIZAIMEIGECHAOXUEZHONGZHIQIANFUYIWEIGETI,CHULEJIDUANSHIJIANBUHUOERLIAOWAI,YIBANBULIKAICHAOXUE。

??在自然界生長的幼體,只捕食端足類,多毛類等小動物,由于龍蝦種苗具有潛伏習性,能逃脫天敵的捕食。但是,這種習性并不是生理上的必需條件,在龍蝦不能挖掘巢穴的底質,用籠子也能飼養。在底部鋪設牡蠣殼的混凝土水池放養第Ⅳ期幼體,成活率大約為80%。龍蝦苗種通常是以變態后第Ⅳ期幼體作為苗種放養,但第Ⅳ期幼體不能完全進入底棲生活,這是導致放養后死亡的原因。

??LONGXIAYIBANZAIFUHUAHOU10—14TIANFAYUCHENGDIⅣCHANQIYOUTI,CHUXIANDIⅣQIYOUTIDEGAOFENGQISHIZAIFUHUAHOUDE11—13TIAN,LONGXIAFUYOUYOUTISHIBUSHIYUNDONGXINGDEERLIAO,CONGSHENGWUXUEJIAODUCHUFA,YONGWALIPUSHEDIZHIDUISIYANGLONGXIASHIYOUXIAODE。


??ER、DANSHUIXIAOLONGXIADEYANGCHENGJISHU


??大自然中的龍蝦主要是棲息在沙泥質的海底,每穴潛伏一尾,但在交尾期,雌雄配對潛伏,有時也潛伏于巖石的空隙中,而日本龍蝦是屬群棲生活。淡水龍蝦在飼養期間必須進行投餌,要考慮各種附著生物是否可作為餌料加以利用,為此日本曾進行海中垂下養殖試驗。


江苏快3??1.SHUIWEN:LONGXIAQIXIYUJIAODISHUIWEN,DONGJIZUIDIDESHUIWENYUEWEI5℃—6℃KEYISHIHELONGXIAYANGZHI,RUGUOSHUIWENJIAODI,CHENGSHUQIHUIYANCHANGZHI5—7NIAN。LONGXIANAIGAOWENXINGQUEJIAOCHA,ZAISHIYANZHONGJIANGSHUIWENSHANGSHENGDAO25℃,CHIXU2ZHOUMEIYOUCHUXIANTEBIEYICHANGXIANXIANG,GENJUSHIYAN,SHIYICHENGCHANGDEWENDUWEI20℃—23℃,LONGXIAZAISHUIWEN20℃—22℃SHUIZHONGSHENGCHANGZUIKUAI,SUOYIZAISHUIWENXIAJIANGDEDONGJI,LIYONGWENPAISHUISIYANGSHICUJINSHENGCHANGDEFANGFAZHIYI。


??2.YANDU:LONGXIADESHIYANFANWEIWEI26.90‰—34.40‰,ZAIDIYANDU23.50‰DEHAISHUIZHONGYENENGSHENGHUOBINGBIANTAI。


??3.DIZHI:LONGXIABIANTAIHOUDEYOUTIWEILETAOBITIANDIDEBUSHI,ZHUANRUDIQISHENGHUO,DIZHIDESHALIZUOWEIQIANFUHESUOERDECHANGSUOJIWEIZHONGYAO。BIANTAI3—4TIANHOULONGXIANENGZAILIJINGWEI0.4—1.0mmDESHALIZHONGJUEXUEQIANFU。BIANTAI8TIANHOU,NENGZAILIJINGWEI2.0—3.0mmDESHALIZHONGQIANFU。


??4.SHENGCHANGLV:DUI1LINGQIANDELONGXIAQUNTI,ZHIXUYONGMULIKEPUCHIDI,BUBITOUFANGRENGONGBITICHAOXUE,TOUWEIZIYIBEIZUOWEIERLIAOJINXINGWEIYANG。CONG2LINGKAISHI,TOUFANGSILVYIXIGUANZUOWEIBITICHAOXUE,QITOUFANGGESHUSHILONGXIAMIAOSIYANGSHULIANGDE2BEI。ZAIYANGZHIMAN2NIANDEQUNTIZHONG,CHUXIANZUIDATIZHONGWEI300KEZUOYOUDEGETI,LONGXIAMEICITUIKEDAYUEZENGZHONG50%,LONGXIAGETIZAIYILINGCHUTUIKE,XINGCHENGSHUSHIDETIZHONGKEDADAO450KE,ZAI3LINGQUNTINEI,YOU16%DADAOXINGCHENGSHU。

??LONGXIASHENGCHANGYUERLIAO、HUANJING、SHUIZHIJITUIKEDECISHUYOUGUAN,CENGSHIYANGEZHONGERLIAOJIYONGDIANCIJITUIKE,JIEGUOYIXINXIANXIAROUWEIYANGCHENGCHANGGENGKUAI,BISHIYONGYUROUSIYANGSHENGCHANGSUDUKUAI1BEI,ZAISHENGCHANGGUOCHENGZHONGTONGCHANGYINIANTUIKE2CIYISHANG,YONGHUAXUEYAOWUHUODIANCIJISHIKETUIKE4CI,SHENGCHANGLVZENGJIA1BEI。LONGXIATUIKEHOU,JING2ZHOUXINKEYINGHUA,LONGXIAHUIZAIDUHUOYUEQILAI,CISHISHILIANGDAZENG,SIYANGSHIXUZENGJIA30%DESILIAOLIANG。


江苏快3??5.CHENGHUOLV:YIDIQISHENGHUODEDIⅣQIYOUTIWEIJICHU,BUDAO1LINGDEQUNTICHENGHUOLVLVEDIYU60%,DAN1—3LINGQUNTICHENGHUOLVCHAOGUO80%,QUNTISIYANGDECHENGHUOLVDADAO80%SHIBIJIAOHAODESIYANGCHENGGUO。

??GUANCHAZAISHUICHIZHONGXIANGHUZAOYUDELONGXIACHANGTIQIAOZU,XIANGHUJINXINGWEIXIA,DANWEIJIANYIAOZUJINXINGGEDOUCANSHADAOZHILONGXIASIWANGDEXIANXIANG,YINCI,RENWEI0—1LINGDELONGXIAYIQUNTISIYANG,2LINGYIHOUGETIGELISIYANGDEXIAOYIJIAOGAO。


??6.ERLIAO:DIⅣQIYIHOUDELONGXIAZHUANMENTOUWEIZIYIBEI,KEYICUJINLONGXIAXUNSUCHENGSHUHEFANZHI,ZIYIBEINENGMANZULONGXIAYOUMIAODUIYINGYANGFANGMIANDEXUQIU。LONGXIASHIXINGZA,KETOUWEILENGDONGXIAOZAYU、XIAOBEILEIHEDUIXIARENGONGERLIAO,RITOUER1CI,TOUERSHIJIANYIXIAWUWEIHAO,LIANTOU2TIANTING1TIAN,RITOUERLIANGWEIXIAZHONGDE5—12%。JINGCHANGZHUYILONGXIADEHUODONG,SHESHIQINGKUANG,MEINIANQINGCHI1CI,YIFANGWURAN。SHIYANBIAOMING,TOUWEIRIBENDUIXIAYONGDEPEIHEERLIAOJINXINGTOUWEISHIYAN,LONGXIADESHENGCHANGHECHENGHUOLVDOUBITOUWEIZIYIBEIBIAOXIANCHUXIANGENGHAOSIYANGXIAOGUO。DUILONGXIALAISHUO,SILIAOZHONGZUISHIDANBAIZHIHANLIANGWEI20—25%,QIWANGJINHOUNENGYANZHICHUYIZHONGSHIHELONGXIAYONGDEPEIHEERLIAO,CIWAI,LONGXIAYONGDI3EZUBUSHIKELIERLIAO,YINCILONGXIAGETIDAXIAOYUKELIDAXIAOWUZHIJIEGUANXI,YIBANKEYONGZHIJINGXIAODEKELISILIAO。


??7.PEIYUZAJIAOPINZHONG:RIBENKAIZHANSHENGWUJISHUPEIYULONGXIAYANJIU。YU1980NIANPEIYUCHUCHUDAIZAJIAOZHONG,1988NIANPEIYUCHUZAJIAOZHONGDIERDAI。TAMENJIANGMEIGUOLONGXIAZUOWEIXIONGTI,OUZHOULONGXIAZUOWEICITI,ZHIYAOJIANGTAMENFANGZAIYIQI,JIUHUIFASHENGJIAOWEI,ZHEDIANYUAOXIAXIANGTONG。YUNYUXIALUANHOU,YOUTIFUHUAYIBANZAI5、6YUEFENKAISHI,DIERDAIZAJIAOZHONGFAYUSHUNLI。TIANRANDELONGXIAFUHUAHOUYUE2ZHOUZUOYOUFUYOUYUHAISHUIBIAOMIAN,YIZHAOGUOQUDEYANJIU,ZAJIAOZHONGZHISHAOYAOBIQINZHONGDA1BEI,ZHEZHONGJISHURUGUONENGPUJI,JINGSHUDAIHOU,RENMENJIUNENGDETEDAGETIDELONGXIA


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關鍵詞:龍蝦幼苗,淡水龍蝦,小龍蝦種苗

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